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  Essay

 

                                      EXTENDED RESPONSE

ESSAY TEST     

                                      RESTRICTED RESPONSE

 

EXTENDED RESPONSE

 

ADVANTAGES:

 

         1.  Examinee is permitted freedom of response.

         2.  Higher levels of mental functioning.

 

         e.g.   Synthesis and evaluation can be tested.

 

DISADVANTAGES: -  SCORER UNRELIABILITY

 

 

RESTRICTED RESPONSE

 

ADVANTAGES:

 

         1.  Scoring is easier.

         2.  Minimizes somewhat the problems of reliability in

              scoring.

 

DISADVANTAGES

 

-  By restricting the student’s response, we are giving up a

   measure of the student’s ability to synthesize ideas and

   express them in a logical, coherent fashion.

 


 

 

 

ADVANTAGES OF THE ESSAY TEST

 

 

1.  Easier to prepare than Multiple-Choice.

 

 

 

2.  The only means to assess an examinee’s ability to

     compose an answer and present it in effective

     prose.

 

 

 

3.  Tests student’s ability to supply rather than select

     the correct answer.

 

 

 

4.  It helps to induce a “good” effect on    student

     learning.

 

 

 

5.  Students prefer them over Multiple-Choice tests.


 

 

 

LIMITATIONS OF ESSAY TEST

 

 

1.  Poor/limited content sampling,

therefore, poor content validity.

 

 

2.  Low scorer reliability.

 

 

3.  Student fails to understand the

     questions and therefore, is not

sure how to respond.

 

 

4.  Amount of time required to read

     and grade the essay.


 

 

 

WRITING GOOD ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

 

SOME GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS:

 

1.  Give adequate time and thought to the preparation of essay

     questions.

 

         a)  Measure the intended objective.

 

         b)  Wording is unambiguous

 

                 i.e.    Simple and clear to the students.

 

         c)  The question is reasonable and can be answered by the

     students.

 

 

2.  The question should be written, so that it will elicit the type of

     behavior you want to measure.

 

 

3.  A well-constructed essay question should establish a framework

     within which the student operates.

 

 

                                                                     STUDENTS

ABSENCE OF FRAMEWORK 

                                                                     TEACHER

 


 

 

 

TO PROVIDE FRAMEWORK THE TEACHER SHOULD:

 

 

a)  Delimit the area covered by the question.

 

 

 

b)  Use words that themselves give directions.

 

         e.g.   Define

                 Outline

                 Illustrate

                 Classify... etc.   

 

 

 

c)  “AIM” the student to the desired response.

 

 

         e.g.   We would like you to think and organize

                 along these lines . . . . . . etc.

 

 

 

d)  Indicate the value of the question and the time to be spent

     in answering it.


 

 

 

4.  Decide in advance what factors (other than content) will be considered in the evaluation.

 

         e.g.   spelling

                 punctuation

                 grammar

                 penmanship

                 clarity of expression, ... etc.       

 

 

5.      Do not provide optional questions.  WHY?

 

 a)  Valid comparisons of achievement?

 

 b)  Difficult to construct questions of equal difficulty.

 

Therefore:

 

- lenient in grading difficult questions?

 

- severe in grading easy questions?

 

 c)  Motivation to study all the material?

 

 

Optional questions are justified when:

 

         i)      students are not taught common materials.

         ii)     there are deviations from a common syllabus

                 from class to class.


 

 

 

6.  Use a relatively large number of questions requiring shorter answers (about 1\2 page) rather than just a few questions involving long answers (2 - 3 pages).

 

WHY?  a)  Broader sampling of content.

 

         b)  Answers can be read more rapidly.

 

         c)  Easier to “aim” the student to the desired response.

 

 

7.  Don’t start with words such as “list”, “who”, “what”.  These words tend to elicit  responses that require only recall of factual information.

 

 

                      the length of response

8.  Adapt                                                      to the maturity level

                      complexity of the                   of the student

     question and answer

                            

 

 

9.  Use the novel type of question wherever feasible.

 

 

10.  Prepare a scoring key/model answer before the papers are

       graded.


 

 

                                               Analytical method

GRADING ESSAYS    

                                               Global scoring method

 

 

A.  Analytical Method (“point-score” method):

 

The model answer is broken down into specific points.  The student’s score is based upon the number of points contained in his/her answer.

 

Factors to consider in assigning point value:

 

i)    Time needed to respond.

 

ii)   Complexity of the question.

 

iii)  The emphasis placed on that content

area in the instructional phase.


Analytical Scoring Method

 

Advantages:

 

1.  Can yield very reliable scores.

 

2.  The very process of preparing the detailed

     answer may reveal such errors as:

       -  faulty wording

       -  extreme difficulty

       -  complexity of the question

       -  unrealistic time limits

 

3.  The fine subdivision of the model answer can

     make it easier to discuss the grade given to

     the student.

 

Disadvantages:

 

1.  It is very laborious and time-consuming.

 

2.  In attempting to identify the elements,

     undue attention may be given to superficial

     aspects of the answer.


 

B.  GLOBAL SCORING (HOLISTIC/RATING METHOD)

 

 

-  The rater is asked to establish standards or anchor points for the essay by:

 

         a)  preparing own model answers.

 

         b)  selecting papers already written and let the actual

              responses establish the various anchor points.

 

 

The rater is then instructed to read the response rapidly, form a general impression, and using some standard, assign a rating to the response.

 

i.e.    A SINGLE OVERALL JUDGMENT OF THE

         QUALITY OF A PAPER.

 

 

ADVANTAGES:        Very effective when large number of essays

are to be read.

 

 

DISADVANTAGES:          1.  Somewhat subjective.

 

                                           2.  Rather difficult to discuss the grade

     given to the student.


FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SCORING ESSAY TEST

 

 

1.  Be consistent in your grading.

 

 

2.  Grade only one question at a time for all papers.

 

 

3.  Randomly shuffle the papers before grading them.

 

 

4.  Try to score all responses to a particular question without

     interruption.

 

 

5.  Grade the response anonymously to reduce personal bias.

 

 

6.  The mechanics of expression should be judged separately from

     what the student writes.

 

         e.g.            legibility

                          spelling

                          punctuation

                          grammar, ... etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.  If possible, obtain 2 independent readings of the

     test and use the average as the final score.

 

                                      OR 

 

     Have the same reader grade the papers twice.

 

 

 

8.  Provide comments and correct errors

 

        a)  as an opportunity to teach the students.

 

        b)  to explain method of grade assignment.

 

 

 

9.  Set realistic standard.

 

-  not too lenient, not too harsh.


 

 

ORAL EXAM

 

It provides immediate feedback  to both student

and teacher.

 

Advantages:

 

1.  Can determine how well the student can

     organize and synthesize his ideas and

     express himself.

 

2.  Requires student to supply the correct

     answer          no guessing.

 

3.  Permits free response.  Student can ask for

     clarification regarding ambiguous questions.

 

4.  Permits detailed probing.

 

5.  For special students.


Oral Exam

 

 

Disadvantages:

 

1.  Very limited sampling of content.

 

 

2.  Low rater reliability.

 

 

3.  Time-consuming and costly.

 

 

4.  Advantageous to the highly articulate

     students.

 

 

5.  Often encourages lack of planning.

 

 

6.  No record of examinee’s response for

     future action.

 

 

 

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