General (Lit)


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Allen, Grant.  The Woman Who Did.  Intro. Sarah Wintle. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.  Originally published in 1895.

------------.  “Plain Words on the Woman Question.”  Fortnightly Review 52 (1889) 448-58.

Arnold, Matthew.  Culture and Anarchy.  Cambridge:  Cambridge UP, 1960.

Bachofen, Johann Jakob.  Das Mutterecht.  Frankfurt am Main : Suhrkamp, 1989. Originally published in 1861.

Besant, Annie.  The Evolution of Society.  London:  1885.

-------------.  Annie Besant:  An Autobiography.  Madras:  Theosophical Publishing, 1939.

Bevington, Louisa.  Key-notes.  London:  C. Kegan Paul & Co., 1879.

Blackwell, Antoinette.   The Sexes Throughout Nature.  New York:  Putnam’s, 1875.

Blind, Mathilde.  “Shelley’s Views on Nature contrasted with Darwin’s.”  London: 1886.

---------------.  The Ascent of Man.  London:  Chatto & Windus, 1889.

Butler, Josephine.  Social Purity.  London:  Morgan and Scott, 1879.

Chambers, Robert.  1844. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.  Intro.  Gavin de Beer.  Leicester UP, 1969. 

Chesser, Elizabeth Sloan.   Woman, Marriage and Motherhood.  London:  1913.

Chesteron, G. K.  Eugenics and Other Evils.  London:  Cassell and Co., 1922.

Cobbe, Frances Power.  Darwinism in Morals, and Other Essays.  London:  Williams and Norgate, 1872.

---------------------.  “Social Science Congresses, and Women’s part in them.” Macmillan’s Magazine.  December 1861.

Craik, Dinah Maria Mulock.  “The Half-Caste:  An Old Governess’s Tale Founded on Fact” collected with Olive:  A Young Girl’s Triumph over Prejudice. Ed. Cora Kaplan.  Oxford:  Oxford UP, 1996.  Originally published in 1897.

Darwin, Charles.  1859. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.  Intro. and Ed. J. W. Burrow.  New York:  Penguin, 1968.

----------------.  1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.  Intro. John Tyler Bonner and Robert M. May.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1981. 

Dickens, Charles. 1864-5.  Our Mutual Friend.  Ed. Stephen Gill.  Harmondworth:  Penguin, 1971. 

Distant, W. L. “The Mental Differences between the Sexes,” Journal of the Anthropological Institute (4) 1874.

Egerton, George.  [Mary Chavelita Bright].   Keynotes.  London: John Lane, 1893.

Eliot, George.  1876.  Daniel Deronda.  Ed. and Intro. Graham Handley.  Oxford:  Oxford UP, 1988.

------------. Impressions of Theophrastus Such.  Edinburgh: 1880.

Ellis, Havelock.   The Task of Social Hygiene.  London, 1912.

Finck, H. T.  Romantic Love and Physical Beauty.  London:  Macmillan, 1887.

Galton, Francis. Hereditary Genius.  London:  Macmillan,1869.

---------------.  1909. “Probability:  The Foundation of Eugenics” in Essays in Eugenics.  New York:  Garland, 1985. 

---------------. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development.  London:  J. M. Dent & Sons, 1883.

---------------.   “Hereditary Talent and Character.” Macmillan’s Magazine (12) 1865.

Geddes,  Patrick and J. Arthur Thomson. The Evolution of Sex.  London:  Walter Scott, 1899.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins.  1898.  Women and Economics:  A Study of the Economic Relations Between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution.  Ed. Sheryl Meyering.  Mineola:  Dover, 1998. 

--------------------------.  The Man-made World or, our androcentric culture.  New York:  Charlton, 1911.

Haddon, Alfred C.  The Study of Man.  London: Bliss, Sands, 1898.

Huxley, T. H.  Man’s Place in Nature and Other Essays.  Intro.  Sir Oliver Lodge.  Ed. Ernest Rhys.  London:  J. M. Dent and Sons, 1914.

-------------.  Evolution and Ethics with new essays on its Victorian and Sociobiological Context.  Eds.  James Paradis and George C. Williams.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1989.  “Prolegomena” completed in June 1894.  “Evolution and Ethics” drafted in 1892, delivered as a lecture at Oxford University 18 May 1893.  As well, Ethics and Evolution.  Ed. Arthur Keith.  New York:  Putnam, 1947.

-------------.   “Mr. Darwin’s Critics.” Contemporary Review. 1871:443-76.

Kenealy, Arabella.   Feminism and Sex Extinction.  London, 1920.

Knox, Robert.  The Races of Man.  London:  Renshaw, 1850.

Leslie, R. Murray.  “Woman’s Progress in Relation to Eugenics.”   Eugenics Review. January 1911.

Maine, Henry.  Ancient Law.  Fourth Edition.  London:  J. Murray, 1870.

McLennan, John Ferguson.  1865.  Primitive Marriage:  An Inquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremonies.  Ed. Peter Rivière.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1970.  

--------------------------.  The Patriarchal Theory.  Ed. and Completed Donald McLennan.  London:  Macmillan, 1885.

--------------------------.  Studies in Ancient History.  The Second Series Comprising an Inquiry into the Origin of Exogamy.  Ed. “His Widow” and Arthur Platt.  London:  Macmillan, 1896.

Mivart, St. George Jackson. “Darwin’s Descent of Man.” Quarterly Review 1871: 47-90.

--------------------------. “Evolution in Mr. Huxley.” Popular Science Monthly 1893: 319-33

Morgan, John Edward.  1866.  “The Danger of Deterioriation of Race” in The Rise of Urban Britain:  A Collection of Thirty-Five Important Titles Documenting This Major Transformation and the Reponses to it.  Ed.  Lynn Hollen Lees and Andrew Lees.  New York:  Garland Press. 1985. 

Morgan, Lewis Henry.  1877.  Ancient Society.  Palo Alto, NY : New York Labor News, 1978.

Nordau, Max.  1895.  Degeneration.  Intro. George L. Mosse.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 1993. 

Pearson, Karl.  “Woman and Labour.” Fortnightly Review.  May 1894.

Ritchie, David G.  Darwinism and Politics.  2nd Ed.  London:  Swan Sonnenchein & Co., 1891.

Saleeby, C. W. Woman and Womanhood.  London:  1912.

Sanger, Margaret.  1920.  Woman and the New Race. Ed. M. Schneir.  Feminism:  The Essential Historial Writings.  New York:  1972.

Schreiner, Olive [pseud. Ralph Iron].  1883. The Story of An African Farm.  London:  Penguin, 1986.

Spencer, Herbert.  “Progress:  its laws and causes.”  Westminster Review 67 (April 1857) 445-85.

-----------------.  Essays Scientific, Political and Speculative. 3 vols.  London:  Williams and Norgate, 1891.

-----------------.  First Principles.  6th Ed.  London:  Watts & Co., 1937.

-----------------.  Facts and Comments.  London: Williams and Norgate, 1902.

-----------------.  The principles of Ethics.  New York:  D. Appleton, 1896.

-----------------.  Education:  Intellectual, Moral and Physical.  London:  Williams and Norgate, 1861.

-----------------. Principles of Biology.  London: Williams & Norgate, 1867.

Stephen, Leslie.   The Science of Ethics.  2nd Ed.  London:  Smith, Elder, 1907.

Tanner. A.  “The Community of Ideas of Men and Women” Psychology Review 3 (5) 1896: 548-50.

Thompson, H. B. The Mental Traits of Sex.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1903.

Wakefield, Priscilla.  1798.  Reflections on the Present Condition of the Female Sex.  Intro. Gina Luria.  New York:  Garland, 1974. 

Wallace, Alfred Russel.  Social Environment and Moral Progress.  London:  Calssell and Company, 1913

----------------------.  Studies:  Scientific and Social.  Vol. 1. London:  Macmillan, 1900.

----------------------. Alfred Russel Wallace:  An Anthology of his Shorter Writings.  Ed. Charles H. Smith.  Oxford:  Oxford UP, 1991.

Whetham, W.C.D. and C.D. Whetham.   Heredity and Society.  London:  1912.

Wollstonecraft, Mary.  1792.  A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.  Ed. Carol H. Poston.  2nd

...... Ed.  New York:  Norton, 1988.

Woodhull, Victoria Clafin.   The Victoria Woodhull Reader.  Ed. M. Stern.  Weston, Mass:  M & S Press, 1974.

Woolley, Helen Thompson.  “A Review of the Recent Literature on the Psychology of the Sex.” Psychological Bulletin (7) 1910.

Zetkin, C.  1896.  “Only with the Proletarian Woman will Socialism be Victorious.” The Socialist Register.  Ed. H. Draper and A. G. Lipow.  London:  Merlin, 1976.


3.2 Selected Secondary Sources

Alter, Stephen G.  Darwinism and the Linguistic Image:  Language, Race, and Natural Theology in the Nineteenth Century.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins UP, 1999.

Anderson, Benedict.  Imagined Communities:  Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism.  London:  Verso, 1983.

Anderson, Nancy Fix.  Women Against Women in Victorian England.  Bloomington:  Indiana UP, 1987.

Ardis, Ann.  New Women, New Novels:  Feminism and Early Modernism.  New Brunswick:  Rutgers UP, 1990.

Beer, Gillian.  Darwin’s Plots:  Evolutionary Narratives in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction.  London:  Routledge, 1983.

Birkin, Lawrence.  “Darwin and Gender.”  Proteus 6.2 (1989) 24-9.

Bland, Lucy.  “Purity, Motherhood, Pleasure or Threat?  Definitions of Female Sexuality 1900-1970s,” in Sex and Love:  New Thoughts on Old Contradictions.  London:  Women’s Press, 1983.

Bleier, Ruth (ed).  Feminist Approaches to Science.  New York:  Pergamon Press, 1986.

Bolt, Christine.  Feminist ferment:  “The Woman Question” in the USA and England, 1870-1940.  London:  University College Press, 1995.

--------------.  Victorian Attitudes to Race.  London:  Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.

Breman, Jan.  Ed.  Imperial Monkey Business:  Racial Supremacy in Social Darwinist Theory and Colonial Practice.  Amsterdam:  VU University Press, 1990.

Burton, Antoinette.  Burdens of History:  British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865-1915.  Chapel Hill:  University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Caudill, Edward.  “The Bishop-Eaters:  The Publicity Campaign for Darwin and On the Origin of Species.”  Journal of the History of Ideas 55.3 (July 1994) 441-60.

Christie, John and Sally Shuttleworth.  Eds.  Nature Transfigured:  Science and Literature, 1700-1900.  Manchester:  Manchester University Press, 1989.

Collini, Stefan, Donald Winch and John Burrow.  That Noble Science of Politics:  A study in nineteenth-century intellectual history.  Cambridge:  Cambridge UP, 1983.

Conway, Jill.  “Stereotypes of Feminity in a Theory of Sexual Evolution” in Suffer and Be Still:  Women in the Victorian Age, ed. Martha Vicinus.  Bloomington:  Indiana UP, 1972.

Crosby, Christina.  The Ends of History:  Victorians and “The Woman Question.”  London:  Routledge, 1991.

Culler, A. Dwight.  “The Darwinian Revolution and Literary Form.”  The Art of Victorian Prose.  Eds. George Levine and William Madden.  London:  Oxford UP, 1968.

Dale, Peter Allan.  In Pursuit of a Scientific Culture:  Science, Art, and Society in the Victorian Age.  Madison:  U Wisconsin P, 1989.

Davin, Anna.  “Imperialism and Motherhood.” History Workshop Journal.  5 (1978) 9-65.

Digby, Anne.  “Women’s Biological Straitjacket” in Sexuality and Subordination:  Interdisciplinary Studies of Gender in the Nineteenth Century.  Ed. Susan Mendus and Jane Rendall.  London:  Routledge, 1989.

Duffin, Lorna.  “Prisoners of Progress:  Women and Evolution.” The Nineteenth-Century Women:  Her Cultural and Physical World.  Eds. Sara Delamont and Lorna Duffin.  London:  Croom Helm, 1978.

Dyhouse, Carol.  “Social Darwinistic ideas and the Development of Women’s Education in England, 1880-1920.” History of Education 5(1), 1976, 41-58.

Fee, Elizabeth.  “The Sexual Politics of Victorian Social Anthropology.” Clio’s Consciousness Raised:  New Perspectives on the History of Women.  Eds. Mary Hartman and Lois Banner.  New York:  Harper & Row, 1974.

-------------.  “Nineteenth Century Craniology:  The Study of the Female Skull.”  Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53 (1979) 415-433.

-------------.  “Women’s Nature And Scientific Objectivity.”  Woman’s nature:  Rationalizations of inequality.  Eds. M. Lowe and R. Hubbard.  New York:  Pergamon, 1983.

Garlock, David.  “Entangled Genders:  Plasticity, Indeterminacy, and the Constructs of Sexuality in Darwin and Hardy.”  Dickens Studies Annual 27 (1998) 287-305.

Gates, Barbara and Ann Shteir.  Eds.  “Revisioning Darwin with Sympathy:  Arabella Buckley.”  Natural Eloquence:  Women Reinscribe Science.  Madison:  U Wisconsin P, 1997. 164-76.

Harding, Sandra.  The Science Question in Feminism.  Ithaca:  Cornell University Press,  1986.

Jacobus, Mary, Fox Keller, Evelyn and Sally Shuttleworth.  Body/Politics:  Women and the Discourse of Science.  London:  Routledge, 1990.

Jann, Rosemary.  “Darwin and the Anthropologists:  Sexual Selection and its Discontents.”  Victorian Studies 37.2 (1994) 287-306.

Jeffreys, Sheila.  The Spinster and her Enemies:  Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930.  London:  Pandora, 1985.

Jones, Greta.  Social Darwinism and English Thought:  The Interaction of Biological and Social Theory.  Brighton: Harvester, 1980.

Kaplan, Cora. “Pandora’s Box:  Subjectivity, Class and Sexuality if Socialist Feminist Criticism.” Sea Changes (London:  Verso, 1986).

MacKenzie, Donald.  “Eugenics in Britain.”  Social Studies of Science.  6.3-4 (September 1976) 499-32.

Mason, Joan.  “Hertha Ayrton (1854-1923) and the Admission of Women to the Royal Society of London.”  Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 45.2 (July 1991) 201-20.

May, Leila.  “Monkeys, Microcephalus Idiots, and the Barbarous Races of Mankind:  Darwin’s Dangerous Victorianism.”  Victorian Newsletter 102 (Fall 2002) 20-27.

Merchant, Carolyn.  “Isis’ Consciousness Raised.”  Isis 73.3 (September 1982) 398-409.

Murphy, Patricia.  “Reevaluating Female ‘Inferiority’:  Sarah Grand Versus Charles Darwin.” Victorian Literature and Culture 26.2 (1998) 221-36.

Porter, Roy.  “Gentlemen and Geology:  The Emergence of a Scientific Career.” The Historical Journal 21.4 (December 1978) 809-36.

Pratt, Mary Louise.  Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation.  London:  Routledge, 1992.

Richards, Evelleen and John Schuster.  “The Feminine Method as Myth and Accounting Resource:  A Challenge to Gender Studies and Social Studies of Science.”  Social Studies of Science 19.4 (November 1989) 697-720.

Richardson, A.  The Eugenization of Love:  Darwin. Galton, and the New Women’s Fictions of Heredity and Eugenics.  PhD. Thesis.  London: Birkbeck College, 2000.

Richmond, Marsha.  “Women in the Early History of Genetics:  William Bateson and the Newnham College Mendelians, 1900-1910.” Isis 92.1 (March 2001) 55-90.

Russett, Cynthia Eagle.  Sexual Science:  The Victorian Construction of Womanhood.  Cambridge:  Harvard UP, 1989.

Sayers, Janet.  Biological Politics:  Feminist and Anti-Feminist Perspectives.  London: Methuen, 1982.

Schiebinger, Londa.  “Why Mammals and called Mammals:  Gender Politics in Eighteenth-Century Natural History.”  The American Historical Review 98.2 (April 1993) 382-411.

Smith, Jonathan.  “’The Cock of Lordly Plume’: Sexual Selection and The Egoist.”  Nineteenth-Century Literature 50.1 (June 1995) 51-77.

Snobelen, Stephen D.  “Of Stones, Men and Angels:  The Competing Myth of Isabelle Duncan’s Pre-Adamite Man (1860).”  Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 32.1 (January 2001) 59-104.

Stepan, Nancy Leys.  “Race and Gender:  The Role of Analogy in Science.”  Isis 77.2 (June 1986) 261-77.

-----------------------.  The Idea of Race in Science:  Great Britain 1800-1960.  London:  MacMillan Press, 1982.

Ware, Vron.  Beyond the Pale:  White Women, Racism and History.  London:  Verso, 1992.

Zonana, Joyce. “The Sultan and the Slave:  Feminist Orientalism and the Structure of Jane Eyre.Signs 18, no. 3 (1993).



Weedon, Chris. Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory.  Oxford:  Basil Blackwell, 1987.

Young, Robert J.C.  Colonial Desire:  Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race.  London:  Routledge, 1995.


Nipissing University
Contact:  Professor Ann-Barbara Graff
Department of English Studies
Last modified: October 12, 2004