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ATTITUDE

 

 

-  Attitude is conceptualized as being a feeling toward an object, an    institution, or a group.

 

-  Attitudes are NOT directly observable but are inferred from a person's    overt behavior, both verbal and nonverbal.

 

 

                                                                      Normal Setting

                                        Observation

                                                                      Simulated Setting

          Methods of

    Measuring

          Attitude

                                                                      Likert Scale

                                        Self-Report

                                                                      Osgood's Semantic

                                                                      Differential

 

 

There are 5 characteristics that are used to describe attitudes:

 

1.  Direction

 

2.  Intensity

 

3.  Pervasiveness

 

4.  Consistency

 

5.  Salience


 

 

TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDE

 

 

1.  Disguised: -  The objective of the test is not immediately clear to the testee.

 

            a)  Information Tests:

 

-  The test appears to be based on cognitive measurement but actually

    is measuring attitude.

 

-  What percentage of the students in high school believe that smoking

    marijuana should be legalized?

 

            a)    0  to   19%

            b)  20  to   39%

            c)  40  to   59%

            d)  60  to   79%

            e)  80  to  100%

 

            b)  Perception and Memory Tests:

 

-  A detailed picture is displayed to the individual for a short period of

    time.  Structured or unstructured questions are then posed

    concerning the picture.  The underlying assumption is that attitudes

    determine perception.

 

c)  Judgement Tests:

 

-  Require the individual to evaluate, say, two positions of a debate.

   The assumption is that attitudes determine the evaluation rather than

    the qualities of the debate itself.

 

2.  Non-disguised: - The objective of the exam is made clear to the testee.

 

e.g.      The use of attitude scales.

 

3.  Structured: -  The item responses are structured and the testee responds along an

   attitude dimension such as agree/disagree, or like/dislike.

 

4.  Unstructured: -  The format is primarily in the forms of a textual response to a

       question.

 

 

USES OF ATTITUDE SCALES

 

 

SELECTION: -  Attitude scales are NOT widely used for selection for two

       important reasons:

 

1.  Ease in faking socially acceptable responses.

 

2.  Question of ethics when disguising the items.

 

 

 

REMEDIATION: -  Attitude measurement may assist management in

  determining needs for individuals who do not conform

  to the status quo.

 

          e.g.     The student who believes that schools exist to force the

 individual to conform will require an alternative education

 solution.

 

 

 

PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT:-   Scales are useful in judging changes in attitude implemented in a pre-test post-test situation.  They can also be used to provide feedback when evaluating new programs, teaching methods or facilities.

 

 

 

RELIABILITY OF ATTITUDE SCALES

 

 

 

VALIDITY OF ATTITUDE SCALES

 

 

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